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Also, according to Cynthia A. Freeland in "Feminist Frameworks for Horror Films," feminist studies of horror films have focused on psychodynamics where the chief interest is "on viewers' motives and interests in watching horror films". Penley, C. (1989). (ed.). Clover, C. (1992). Over the past thirty years, a plethora of publications have argued in favor of a specific psychoanalytic approach to some dimension or convention of cinematic horror. For more information, contact William Rothman or Steven Jay Schneider. (ed.). Nevertheless, when used to shed light on horror cinema, psychoanalysis in its various forms has proven to be a fruitful and provocative interpretative tool. Learn about our remote access options, Author of Un‐American Psycho: Brian De Palma and the Political Invisible. (1997). This acting out takes place either through the figure of the “monstrous-feminine” (Creed), or else through the female character’s sympathetic “look” at the monster- “a potentially subversive recognition of the power and potency of a nonphallic sexuality” (Williams 1983/1996: 24). This is an excerpt from the Introduction to Freud’s Worst Nightmares, expected to be published by Cambridge University Press as part of their “Studies in Film” Series. In The Monstrous-Feminine Barbara Creed challenges this patriarchal view by arguing that the prototype of all definitions of the monstrous is the female reproductive body. Application of psychoanalytic theory on Witches and Other Night Fears. (1). horror film, woman is conceptualized only as victim. Film theory attempts to evaluate motion pictures and their overall impacts on audiences. Included among these critics are analytic philosophers, film aestheticians, sociologists and cultural theorists, cognitive and feminist film theorists, and empirical psychologists. http://www.theaudiopedia.com What is PSYCHOANALYTIC FILM THEORY? Read My Desire: Lacan Against the Historicists. (1986). In recent years, psychoanalytic theory has been the subject of attacks from philosophers, cultural critics, and scientists who have questioned the cogency of its reasoning as well as the soundness of its premises. His book on Wes Craven, An Auteur on Elm Street, will be published by Wallflower Press/Columbia University Press in 2003. Madison, University of Wisconsin Press: xiii-xvii. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. Instead, it was envisaged that contributors to this book would take a step back to discuss-in some cases, to debate-the relative strengths and weaknesses of such psychoanalytic approaches. Turvey, M. (forthcoming). “Introduction.” Post-Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies. Men, Women, and Chain Saws: Gender in the Modern Horror Film. Psychoanalytic film theory occurred in two distinct waves. In Shame indeed it is not until Sissy and Brandon live side by side again as adults that they are forced to face the problems created by their unhealthy sexual behavior. Related to this is the ‘snuggle theory’ – the idea that viewing horror films may be a rite of passage for young people, providing them with an opportunity to fulfil their traditional gender roles. “Screen Theory.” Approaches to popular film. (3). (1993: 14). In order to remain intelligible, I have employed the strategy of trying to reconstruct the arguments of psychoanalytic theorists in my own words. Three sophisticated horror movies are interpreted from the perspective of Homo ludens and the Theatrum mundi-metaphor, in which the boundaries between fiction and reality are called into question in creative ways.Adler, Alfred (1910c/2007): Der psychische Hermaphroditismus im Leben und in der Neurose. Mulvey, L. (1999). “Philosophical Problems Concerning the Concept of Pleasure in Psychoanalytic Theories of (the Horror) Film.” Freud’s Worst Nightmares: Psychoanalysis and the Horror Film. And it effectively undermines the power of those prima facie affinities holding between psychoanalytic concepts and explanations on the one hand, and the manifest content of much horror cinema on the other. In film theory psychoanalytic approaches became dominant during the 1970s and 1980s, at the heyday of the poststructuralist movement. What is equally interesting is the way the film portrays the role of the family in this process. Included among these are articles and books by such influential scholars as Robin Wood, Carol Clover, Stephen Neale, Linda Williams, Barbara Creed, even Noël Carroll in an earlier incarnation. Psychoanalytic theory has been the subject of attacks from philosophers, cultural critics and scientists who have questioned the cogency of its reasoning as well as the soundness of its premises. Sigmund Freud's model of normal human consciousness connects to horror cinema through his vision of abnormality: the origin and effects of the monstrous, the disgusting, the hidden, the murderous, the perverse. The First wave occurred in the 1960s and 70s. Freud's Worst Nightmares - Psychoanalysis and the Horror Film, Criminals Against Decoration: Modernism as a Heist, Claustrophobia and Intimacy in Alex Ross Perry’s, Thresholds of Work and Non-Work in Tulapop Saenjaroen’s, Take the A Train and Don’t Look Back: The 30th Sundance Film Festival and the 19, The 34th Cinema Ritrovato Has Full Resuscitation under COVID, Women at the 2020 Toronto International Film Festival, A Vitalising Cinema in an Agitated Age: The 58th New York Film Festival, Your Daughters Come Back to You: The 28th Pan African Film and Arts Festival, “All the Thrills of the Exotic”: Collective Memory and Cultural Performance in Chris Marker’s, Stairways to Paradise: Youssef Chahine and, Waiting for Rain: Oppression and Resistance in Youssef Chahine’s, The Conscious Collusion of the Stare: The Viewer Implicated in Fassbinder’s, A Fun Night Out: Horror and Other Pleasures of the Cinema. Michelle Carey • Daniel Fairfax • Fiona Villella • César Albarrán-Torres. The Monstrous-Feminine: Film, Feminism, Psychoanalysis. April 2013 im Internet Archive) Holger Reichert: Film und Kino. psychoanalysis in theory and in particular films, such as Jacques Tourneur's Cat People (1942); and 4) charting new directions for theoretical studies of horror films, both psychoanalytic and psychophysiological. The most common route of psychoanalytic inquiry into horror cinema is through considerations of the monster's gender and sexuality. Toward a Psychoanalytic Theory of Postmodern Horror Han-yu Huang Tamkang University Abstract This essay looks at “horror” both as a narrative (literary and especially cinematic) genre and as a trans-genre, postmodern social and cultural milieu, one in which horror has become entangled with excessive, pathological fantasy and enjoyment. Schneider, S. All the while the horror film, … (4). Psychoanalytic theory has been the subject of attacks from philosophers, cultural critics and scientists who have questioned the cogency of its reasoning as well as the soundness of its premises. (1998). It adds strength to the already potent criticisms that psychoanalytic thought is hermetic and self-confirming, that its film theoretical applications produce “closed, self-justifying systems” (Jancovich 1995: 147). Carroll, N. (1996a). Steven Jay Schneider has published widely on the horror film and related genres in journals such as Scope, Other Voices, Kinoeye and Senses of Cinema. This has meant that those externally-motivated criticisms which cut across various psychoanalytic theories of the horror film-as many, if not most of them are wont to do-are typically ignored, their implications unacknowledged, precisely because their very scope encourages a passing of the dialectical buck. One need only consider the objections of neo-Lacanians such as Joan Copjec (1995) and Slavoj Zizek (2001) to earlier claims concerning apparatus theory and the suture effect; Constance Penley’s (1989) critique of screen theory (5); Linda Williams on the problematic (because ambiguous) “terms of perversion used to describe the normal pleasures of film viewing” (1984/1999: 706); and the heated mid-’80s debate in Cinema Journal concerning Stella Dallas and the Mulvey-Metz model of female spectatorship. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. “Prospects for Film Theory: A Personal Assessment.” Post-Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies. Han-yu Huang. Elizabeth Cowie, University of Kent Book Description. Also because it casts itself in political terms, purporting to identify and analyze the ideological effects of a specific visual-narrative structure. (6) Rather, the notions in question should here be understood in heuristic terms, as a set of aims shared by the individual essays regardless of their primary discursive/rhetorical mode, whether this mode is historical, analytic, textual, empirical, or (what is most often the case) some combination thereof. “Feminism, Film Theory, and the Bachelor Machines.” The Future of An Illusion: Film, Feminism, and Psychoanalysis. A psychological and crime thriller that tells the story of Richard Conte, a famous psychoanalyst who must help his wife, Ann Sutton, when she begins to believe that she committed a series of crimes under the influence of hypnosis. “A Fun Night Out: Horror and Other Pleasures of the Cinema.” Freud’s Worst Nightmares: Psychoanalysis and the Horror Film. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press. Meanwhile, Stephen Neale and others argue that horror film monsters are predominantly defined as male, with women as their primary victims: “In this respect, it could well be maintained that it is women’s sexuality, that which renders them desirable-but also threatening-to men, which constitutes the real problem that the [sic] horror cinema exists to explore” (1980: 61). This essay addresses these criticisms—defending a psychoanalytic approach to horror cinema from objections raised by theorists such as Stephen Prince, Andrew Tudor, Jonathan Crane, Noël Carroll, and Berys Gaut. A number of post-structural psychoanalytic horror film theorists, including Barbara Creed and Xavier Mendik (1998), employ Julia Kristeva’s (1982) notion of abjection to argue that women in the genre-mothers especially-are frequently presented as monstrous beings who pose a fatal threat to men. Zizek, S. (2001). But neither did it seem too exciting an idea. Schneider, S. In fact, the feminist-inflected psychoanalytic theories of horror proposed by Williams (1983/1996), Clover (1987; 1992), and Creed (1986; 1993) can all be understood as revisions, rather than outright rejections, of the original Mulveyan paradigm. “When the Woman Looks” (1983). Put another way, analyzing the film with psychoanalytic theory rationalizes the girls’ actions, which strengths Pauline and Juliet’s three-dimensional characterization. Bordwell, D. and N. Carroll (eds.). In accordance with this fear, it is held that the genre defines female sexuality “as monstrous, disturbing, and in need of repression” (Jancovich 1992: 10). Freud’s psychoanalytic theory is a perfect lens through which to evaluate horror films and the effects of them. Nevertheless, when used to shed light on horror cinema, psychoanalysis in its various forms has proven to be a fruitful and provocative interpretative tool. Conte will have to solve the mystery through psychoanalysis if he wishes to save his wife. The character of Norman Bates became a revolutionary breakthrough in cinema and entertainment as Freud’s psychoanalytic theory gained prominence in a major motion picture. Carroll, N. (1996b). These efforts have typically taken the form of either interpretive analysis (of a particular film, subgenre, or the genre as a whole) or depth-psychological explanation (of the symbolic/mythic import of horror film monsters; of the horror affect and how it is generated; of the possibly perverse pleasures viewers obtain from being frightened by visible fictions). Film Theory and Criticism: Introductory Readings (Fifth Edition). Most psychoanalytic horror film theorists to date have not proven very open to revising their particular accounts as a result of critical engagement with the work of others operating even from within the psychoanalytic paradigm. Psychoanalysis is the central issue for many contributors, with essays exploring not only its place in relation to the Gothic Imagination at the heart of horror but also its consequent role in both forming and analysing the horror film. (1993). Freud’s influence in the twentieth century film is undeniable, as we see psychoanalysts replacin… Those who seek, or else just care enough, to defend a psychoanalytic approach to horror cinema inevitably have a pre-existing investment in applied psychoanalysis. If you are an Australian resident, any donations over $2 are tax deductible. The focus of such examinations depends in the type of theory. Manchester, Manchester University Press: 124-50. It is hoped that the concerted efforts made by each of the contributors to question their methods and motives (past and present), anticipate and respond to objections (actual and possible), and situate their work (historically and across disciplinary lines) will help pave the way for future scholarship on the horror film-of whatever theoretical persuasion-which expresses a commitment to the notions of dialogue, progress, and conceptual openness. To refuse to hear such critics out, to not treat their more powerful objections with all-due seriousness, and to eschew making any effort at responding in turn is more than just irresponsible scholarship. Levine, M. (forthcoming). Not essays which simply (or not so simply, as the case may be) make creative use of one or more Freudian, Rankian, Jungian, Kleinian, Jonesian, or Lacanian principles in an effort to shed light on an aspect of the horror film. Clover, C. (1987). The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. Founded in 1999, Senses of Cinema is one of the first online film journals of its kind and has set the standard for professional, high quality film-related content on the Internet. Frühe Schriften (1904–1912). And really, why should they? Theorizing the Moving Image. Steven Jay Schneider: Psychoanalysis in/and/of the Horror Film. Author retrieves from his unconscious the memories of his childhood when he used to listen stories of witches. Mendik, X. They took their primary inspiration from the … Hollows, J. and M. Jancovich (eds.). As originally conceived, Freud’s Worst Nightmares was to be a collection of “meta-theoretical” essays on psychoanalysis and the horror film. According to this paradigm, the threat of castration (absence and lack) posed by images of the female form in Hollywood cinema is contained through a sexualized objectification of that form, whether fetishistic-scopophilic (woman displayed as erotic spectacle, rendered unthreatening by the controlling male look) or sadistic-voyeuristic (woman investigated, demystified, and eventually controlled through punishment) in nature. This volume seeks to find the proper place of psychoanalytic thought in critical discussion of cinema in a series of essays that … Braudy, L. and M. Cohen (eds.). “Why Horror? Working off-campus? Thus, locating quality scholars ready and willing to contribute to a collection of essays all of which would apply psychoanalysis (of whatever species) to the horror film didn’t seem like it would pose too difficult an editorial task. Creed, B. Die Maschinerie des Sehens. It also responds to the need for internal debate amongst otherwise (at least potentially) sympathetic psychoanalytic theorists of the horror genre. Princeton, Princeton University Press. Unfortunately, the trend has been for psychoanalytic horror film theorists to downplay the tensions between their respective positions rather than attempt to resolve or revise them. However, the 1970s and 1980s saw the development of theory that took concepts developed by the French psychoanalyst and writer Jacques Lacan and applied them to the experience of watching a film. Woman as castrator constitutes the most significant face of the monstrous-feminine in film, and Creed challenges the mythical patriarchal view that. Sigmund Freud's model of normal human consciousness connects to horror cinema through his vision of abnormality: the origin and effects of the monstrous, the disgusting, the … Professor of Radio, Television, and Film at the University of North Texas. Most psychoanalytic horror film theorists to date have not proven very open to revising their particular accounts as a result of critical engagement with the work of others operating even from within the psychoanalytic paradigm. Nevertheless, when used to shed light on horror cinema, psychoanalysis in its various forms has proven to be a fruitful and provocative interpretative tool. London, Creation Books: 110-133. Toward A Psychoanalytic Postmodern Horror Theory. Dezember 2010 im Internet Archive) bei: Senses of Cinema; Bibliographie des 3rd European Psychoanalytic Film Festivals (Memento vom 17. While this is a broad and fruitful area of study, work in it has been shaped by a pronounced emphasis upon psychoanalytic theory, which I The first, beginning in the late 1960s and early 1970s, focused on a formal critique of cinema’s dissemination of ideology, and especially on the role of the cinematic apparatus in this process. Learn more. Psychoanalytic theories of film, and of horror film in particular, have been subject to attack from various quarters. But the truth remains that a number of objections levied in recent years by critics positioning themselves well outside the circle of Freud and his followers constitute a far more serious threat to the psychoanalytically-inclined horror film theorist than any and all such internal variety and difference. The human mind is a cipher that not even the historic psychoanalytical theory has been able to decode. The title “Witches and the other Night -Fears” leads reader to the authors unconscious. As employed in the present context, however, these notions should not be taken as indicative of a bias towards positivist or quasi-scientific horror film theorization; for there is certainly room to argue, as Michael Levine does in this volume, that psychoanalytic theories of cinematic horror, or of anything else for that matter, may be true even if unscientific according to a standard of falsifiability modeled on those of the empirical sciences. Film Theory and Criticism: Introductory Readings (Fifth Edition). These two theories put forth the development in the film theories like feminist film theory. Psychoanalysis is the central issue for many contributors, with essays exploring not only its place in relation to the Gothic Imagination at the heart of horror but also its consequent role in both forming and analysing the horror film. Creed, B. London, BFI. In reference to horror film, psychoanalysis is as close to essential as any conceptual model can get. In: Persönlichkeit und neurotische Entwicklung. “Her Body, Himself: Gender in the Slasher Film.” Representations 20: 187-228. London, B.T. Allen, R. (1999). After all, how many scholars would actually be willing to expend the time and energy needed to defend psychoanalytic theory as applied to the horror film without having a pet application of their own that they believe is well worth defending? Namely, attacking what its advocates hold to be the “ethereal speculations” of a “Grand” psychoanalytic film theory which supposedly sees itself as “an indispensible frame of reference for understanding all filmic phenomena” (Bordwell and Carroll 1996: xiii). Sparks fly across the pages as the philosophical and epistemological premises of theories of horror are themselves subjected to analysis and evaluation as well as, in some cases, rejection. The same cannot be said of psychoanalytic film theory in general, which has certainly seen its fair share of internal controversy. Dispositional Alignment: People seem to enjoy the violence in horror movies when it is directed against those they believe are deserving of such treatment. Psychoanalysis is the central issue for many contributors, with essays exploring not only its place in relation to the Gothic Imagination at the heart of horror but also its consequent role in both forming and analysing the horror film. Hills, M. (forthcoming). Eschewing the bogus idea of “pure” meta-theoretical inquiry conducted by people with no first-order attachment to their arguments and conclusions, Freud’s Worst Nightmares responds to the need for critical dialogue amongst psychoanalytic horror film scholars and those of other theoretical and disciplinary stripes. Oxford, Blackwell: 123-45. But unless and until the necessary qualifications are proffered, they stand in evident conflict. Rather, Turvey seems to be thinking of “a situation in which everyone just rattles around in their own paradigm” (Carroll 1992/1996a: 334); only here, the theorists in question are held to be “just rattling around” in the same paradigm, broadly construed as psychoanalysis. Williams, L. (1999). Clearly, the pluralism Turvey has in mind here is not of the productive or “methodologically robust” type advocated by Noël Carroll. Creed, B. (2), Arguably, one example of this sort of unproductive pluralism centers on the post-structural psychoanalytic claim that at the heart of cinematic horror lies a patriarchal fear of female sexuality. “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema” (1974). What does PSYCHOANALYTIC FILM THEORY mean? (Memento vom 25. “Cognitivism, Contemporary Film Theory and Method: A Response to Warren Buckland” (1992). (Memento vom 28. Clover, meanwhile, argues for a primarily masochistic and empathetic, rather than sadistic-voyeuristic, identification on the part of both male and female spectators with the originally suffering but ultimately empowered “Final Girl” of the slasher movie. “From the Monstrous Mother to the ‘Third Sex’: Female Abjection in the Films of Dario Argento.” Necronomicon: The Journal of Horror and Erotic Cinema, Book Two. Horror. These experiences range from watching horror films to skydiving and bungee jumping. Psychoanalysts have always held family life to be extremely important in the processes of socialization and maturation. Austin, University of Texas Press: 15-34. All the while the horror film, … And despite the often vitriolic criticisms of psychoanalysis coming from both inside and outside the all-too-thin walls of academic film studies, the horror genre has continued to see a steady stream of new psychoanalytic approaches, as well as new variations on existing ones. “Horror and the Monstrous-Feminine: an Imaginary Abjection.” Screen 27.1: 44-70. (1990). (7). Black, A. Braudy, L. and M. Cohen (eds.). New York, Cambridge University Press: 321-35. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Miller, T. and R. Stam (eds.). But due to the fact that each of these accounts constitutes a revision/refinement of a highly politicized and psychoanalytically-motivated feminist film theory whose implications extend far beyond the boundaries of the horror genre-just recall Mulvey’s sweeping claims, e.g., that “unchallenged, mainstream film code[s] the erotic into the language of the dominant patriarchal order” (1975/1999: 835)-they do not really qualify as debates taking place within the domain of psychoanalytic horror film theorizing. Han-yu Huang. As Malcolm Turvey details in his contribution to this volume, for instance, a survey of the various explanations offered up by psychoanalytic film theorists concerning the puzzling pleasures of horror film viewing reveals a host of structurally similar but still more or less conflicting positions. “Doing Things with Theory: From Freud’s Worst Nightmare to (Disciplinary) Dreams of Horror’s Cultural Value.” Freud’s Worst Nightmares: Psychoanalysis and the Horror Film. Batsford, Ltd. Jancovich, M. (1995). Bordwell, D. and N. Carroll (eds.). The unconscious is a storage house of mysteries- hidden joys, anxieties and sorrows. THE MYTH OF META-THEORY. “Film Bodies: Gender, Genre, and Excess” (1984). This was to be a book about psychoanalytic theories of the horror film, rather than a book which merely offered still more new and/or improved (or not) psychoanalytic theories of the horror film. Bordwell, D. and N. Carroll (1996). This chapter points out that horror films seem to be built on a set of recurring themes: parents and children, sex and blood, secrets from the past, loss, repetition, trauma, death. Over the past thirty years, a plethora of publications have argued in favor of a specific psychoanalytic approach to some dimension or convention of cinematic horror. The main figures of this first wave were Christian Metz, Jean-Louis Baudry, and Laura Mulvey. Sparks fly across the pages as the philosophical and epistemological premises of theories of horror are themselves subjected to analysis and evaluation as well as, in some cases, rejection. "The essays in Horror Film and Psychoanalysis: Freud's Worst Nightmare are exemplary philosophical and aesthetic discussions, their complex and subtle arguments are both challenging and thought-provoking." (ed.). Rather, they are debates taking place within psychoanalytic film theory in general. Schneider, S. As Malcolm Turvey details in his contribution to this volume, for instance, a survey of the various explanations offered up by psychoanalytic film theorists concerning the puzzling … Or less grown up together, it seems natural to apply them to one another perfect lens through which evaluate. Depends in the film portrays the role of the monster 's Gender and the question horror. 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