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On land, decades of fighting saw Florence, Milan and Venice emerge as the dominant players, and these three powers finally set aside their differences and agreed to the Peace of Lodi in 1454, which saw relative calm brought to the region for the first time in centuries. The Fascist regime engaged in interventionist foreign policy in Europe. The Tangentopoli scandals involved all major parties, but especially those in the government coalition: between 1992 and 1994 the DC underwent a severe crisis and was dissolved, splitting up into several pieces, among whom the Italian People's Party and the Christian Democratic Center. The revolutionaries were so feared that the reigning authorities passed an ordinance condemning to death anyone who attended a Carbonari meeting. The Kingdom of Sicily would last under various dynasties until the 19th century. Thenceforth, the Fasci di Combattimento (forerunner of the National Fascist Party, 1921) of Benito Mussolini successfully exploited the claims of Italian nationalists and the quest for order and normalization of the middle class. Vincenzo Gioberti, a Piedmontese priest, had suggested a confederation of Italian states under rulership of the Pope. Decades later, the armies of Eastern Emperor Justinian entered Italy with the goal of re-establishing imperial Roman rule, which led to the Gothic War that devastated the whole country with famine and epidemics. 800 BCE. Soccer History Timeline - the most important events in soccer history from its origin to the present time. .c. The few independent city-states were also subdued. It is widely accepted that Etruscans spoke a non-Indo-European language. Partly because of this, the Papacy had relocated to Avignon in France. The Etruscan religion was an immanent polytheism, in which all visible phenomena were considered to be a manifestation of divine power, and deities continually acted in the world of men and could, by human action or inaction, be dissuaded against or persuaded in favor of human affairs. Church records can be immensely helpful in your Italian genealogy research. This decision angered the Fascist regime. The maritime republics, especially Venice and Genoa, soon became Europe's main gateways to trade with the East, establishing colonies as far as the Black Sea and often controlling most of the trade with the Byzantine Empire and the Islamic Mediterranean world. The nuraghe towers are unanimously considered the best-preserved and largest megalithic remains in Europe. [157][158] The measures, despite being widely approved by public opinion,[159] were also described as the largest suppression of constitutional rights in the history of the republic. Historical Movies. 750 BC. By January of the same year, half of the Italian forces fighting in the Soviet Union had been destroyed,[129] the African campaign had failed, the Balkans remained unstable, and Italians wanted an end to the war. In 1808, he also annexed Marche and Tuscany to the Kingdom of Italy. Mark Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, leaving Octavianus the sole ruler of the Republic. On land, these wars were primarily fought by armies of mercenaries known as condottieri, bands of soldiers drawn from around Europe, but especially Germany and Switzerland, led largely by Italian captains. Each day it presents a summary of one event that occurred on that day in history. However, the southern regions of the young nation remained rural and poor, originating the Italian diaspora. Italy marched in to take over the Papal State. Modern European History v. 1; Chronological and National Cou: 1789-Present: 001 Paperback – 31 December 1994 by John Santore (Author) See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions [137] During the Second Battle of El Alamein the 7th Bersaglieri Regiment exhibited a strong regimental spirit in the fight for Hill 28 that impressed Rommel to comment positively. Search Results. The treaty of Cateau-Cambresis (1559) imposed Spanish Hapsburg dominance in Italy. Berlusconi's government was able to avoid no-confidence thanks to support from sparse MPs, but has lost a consistent majority in the lower Chamber. Rome led the federation of the Italic peoples, and later dominated Western Europe, Northern Africa, and the Near East. in Ute Planert, ed., This page was last edited on 8 January 2021, at 14:05. ), the search for new commercial outlets and ports, and expulsion from their homeland, Greeks began to settle in Southern Italy (Cerchiai, pp. However, on the other hand, transportation was difficult, soil fertility was low with extensive erosion, deforestation was severe, many businesses could stay open only because of high protective tariffs, large estates were often poorly managed, most peasants had only very small plots, and there was chronic unemployment and high crime rates. • Thomas Bartlett (1841). This led the Etruscans to ally themselves with the Carthaginians, whose interests also collided with the Greeks. On 4 June 1944, the German occupation of Rome came to an end as the Allies advanced. On 15 May the French general then entered Milan, where he was welcomed as a liberator. Giolitti believed that the Fascists could be toned down and used to protect the monarchy from the socialists. After a protracted campaign of unification, which encompassed several decades and a series of conflicts, the Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed on March 17th, 1861 by a parliament based in Turin. The Italian general election, 1948 saw a landslide victory for Christian Democrats, that dominated the system for the following forty years. Officially, the government was republican, but Augustus assumed absolute powers. Fiat managed to remain at the cutting edge of car manufacturing technology, enabling it to expand production, foreign sales, and profits.[143]. Meanwhile, Rome had started annexing Etruscan cities. Letta formed a grand coalition government, supported also by The People of Freedom of Silvio Berlusconi and Civic Choice of Mario Monti. [125] This was important to the alliance as both regimes mutually had claims on France, Germany on German-populated Alsace-Lorraine and Italy on the mixed Italian and French populated Nice and Corsica. Carpanetto, Dino, and Giuseppe Ricuperati. A constitution, the Statuto Albertino was enacted in the year of revolutions, 1848, under liberal pressure. For six months Italy remained neutral, as the Triple Alliance was only for defensive purposes. 476 – Flavius Odoacer Becomes First King of Italy, 774 – Charlemagne Becomes King of Lombards, 14th-16th Centuries – Italian Renaissance. In the South, there were attacks from the Umayyad Caliphate and the Abbasid Caliphate. (MODERN PART) I. II. The maritime republics rose to great prosperity through shipping, commerce, and banking, acting as Europe's main port of entry for Asian and Near Eastern imported goods and laying the groundwork for capitalism. The Germans brought Mussolini to northern Italy where he set up a Fascist puppet state, the Italian Social Republic. With no contemporary records of the kingdom existing, all accounts of the kings must be carefully questioned.[22]. On Napoleon's escape and return to France (the Hundred Days), he regained Murat's support, but Murat proved unable to convince the Italians to fight for Napoleon with his Proclamation of Rimini and was beaten and killed. Italy became a nation-state belatedly on 17 March 1861, when most of the states of the peninsula were united under king Victor Emmanuel II of the House of Savoy, which ruled over Piedmont. From 1969 to 1980, repeated neofascist outrages were launched such as the Piazza Fontana bombing in 1969. Baroque. © 2010–2020 Dauntless Jaunter & Pardeaplex, Italy History: A Quick Timeline of Italian Historical Events, Explore • Educate • Experience • Enlighten, Stories: Legends, Mythology, Tales & More, Italian Holidays: Important Events & Days Off for Italy, Ca Maria Adele in Venice, Italy: A Detailed Review of the Most Luxurious Hotel, Top 7 Things to do While in Venice, Italy, Aperitivo: A Brief Look at the Aperitif Culture in Northern Italy, Trieste: A Day in Italy’s Northeastern Seaport City, 36 Hours in Udine, Northeastern Italy’s Capital City of Friuli, Pizza: Who Invented Pizza? In 1870, France started the Franco-Prussian War and brought home its soldiers in Rome, where they had kept the pope in power. Where’s it From? The one open sore was Spain (Hispania). [144] The so-called Italian economic miracle lasted almost uninterruptedly until the "Hot Autumn's" massive strikes and social unrest of 1969–70, that combined with the later 1973 oil crisis, gradually cooled the economy, that has never returned to its heady post-war growth rates. III. ", Antonio Carlo, "Against the 'Southern Question'" (1974), Luigi Tomassini, "Industrial Mobilization and the labour market in Italy during the First World War,", The Fascist Experience by Edward R. Tannenbaum, p. 22, James J. Sadkovich, "Understanding Defeat: Reappraising Italy's Role in World War II,", Jon E. Lewis (1999), The Mammoth Book of True War Stories, p. 318, Francesca Fauri, "The Role of Fiat in the Development of the Italian Car Industry in the 1950s". 1946 – Italian Republic is Formed on 10 June, 1955 – Italy Joins United Nations (read more: What is the United Nations?). ", Rome: The Conquest of the Hellenistic Empires, "Paul Oskar Kristeller HUMANISM (The Cambridge History of Renaissance Philosophy)", "The plague in the Kingdom of Naples (1656–58): diffusion and mortality", "Carbonaro – definition of Carbonaro by The Free Dictionary", "Italy Prime Minister Mattro Renzi on Senate Reform", "Italy's Conte forms coalition of bitter rivals, booting far-right from power", "New Italian government formed, allying M5S and the center-left | DW | 4 September 2019", "Italy extends emergency measures nationwide", "From confidence to quarantine: how coronavirus swept Italy", "Sondaggio Demos: gradimento per Conte alle stelle", "Blog | Coronavirus, la sospensione delle libertà costituzionali è realtà. The agitations also extended to the agricultural areas of the Padan plain and were accompanied by peasant strikes, rural unrests and guerilla conflicts between left-wing and right-wing militias. With no immediate response, a group of 30,000 Fascists began a long trek across Italy to Rome (the March on Rome), claiming that Fascists were intending to restore law and order. Italy's military failures against France, Greece, Yugoslavia and in the African Theatres of war shook Italy's new prestige mightily. He was murdered in 44 BCE, in the Ides of March by the Liberatores. [42][43] The Senate granted Octavian a unique grade of Proconsular imperium, which gave him authority over all Proconsuls (military governors).[44]. A new constitution was approved, setting up a parliamentary democracy. Etruscans were a monogamous society that emphasized pairing. The Fascist regime planned to regain Italian-populated areas of France,[121] but with the rise of Nazism, it became more concerned of the potential threat of Germany to Italy. Famous vernacular poets of the 15th century include the Renaissance epic authors Luigi Pulci (Morgante), Matteo Maria Boiardo (Orlando Innamorato), and Ludovico Ariosto (Orlando Furioso). The creation of the Kingdom of Italy was the result of concerted efforts by Italian nationalists and monarchists loyal to the House of Savoy to establish a united kingdom encompassing the entire Italian Peninsula. 750 BCE - 510 BCE. The first battles came on 9 April, between the French and the Piedmontese, and within only two weeks Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia was forced to sign an armistice. Proto-villanovans practised cremation and buried the ashes of their dead in pottery urns of distinctive double-cone shape. Louis Heilprin. All these new countries were satellites of France, and had to pay large subsidies to Paris, as well as provide military support for Napoleon's wars. Although the battle had no clear winner, Carthage managed to expand its sphere of influence at the expense of the Greeks, and Etruria saw itself relegated to the northern Tyrrhenian Sea with full ownership of Corsica. The Italian Fascist movement was founded on 23 March 1919 by Benito Mussolini. The Roman Empire was instrumental in creating the foundations for modern society, Florence was central to the Renaissance movement and Rome houses the head of one of the world's largest religions. [8] Italian explorers discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the Age of Discovery.[9][10]. The Italian Navy committed 91 warships and submarines and sank 72,800 tons of Republican and neutral shipping. Tolkien and his hobbits. Many Italian generals and officers earned our respect as men as well as soldiers". Depretis put through authoritarian measures, such as the banning public meetings, placing "dangerous" individuals in internal exile on remote penal islands across Italy and adopting militarist policies. All male members of the House of Savoy were barred from entering Italy, a ban which was only repealed in 2002. 1957 – Italy is Founding Member of EEC; The European Economic Community is the European Union predecessor. Brief Overview of the History of Turkey Turkey is located at the crossroads between Europe and Asia. Letta's cabinet lasted until 22 February 2014 (for a total of 300 days), as the government fell apart after the Democratic Party retired its support of Letta in favour of Matteo Renzi, the 39-year-old mayor of Florence and nicknamed "Il Rottamatore" (The scrapper), who succeeded Letta as Prime Minister at the head of a new government with three centre parties, New Centre-Right, Civic Choice and Union of the Centre. 4.4 out of 5 stars 22. On 24 April, Giorgio Napolitano gave to the Vice-Secretary of the Democratic Party, Enrico Letta, the task of forming a government, having determined that Pier Luigi Bersani could not form a government because it did not have a majority in the Senate. [31][32] The conquest of the Hellenistic kingdoms provoked a fusion between Roman and Greek cultures and the Roman elite, once rural, became a luxurious and cosmopolitan one. Following Antony's Donations of Alexandria, which gave to Cleopatra the title of "Queen of Kings", and to their children the regal titles to the newly conquered Eastern territories, the war between Octavian and Mark Antony broke out. The history of all Italian States from the reconquest by the Byzantine Empire to 2016. The Gauls destroyed much of Rome's historical records when they sacked the city after the Battle of the Allia in 390 BCE (Varronian, according to Polybius the battle occurred in 387/6) and what was left was eventually lost to time or theft. Many of the new Hellenic cities became very rich and powerful, like Neapolis (Νεάπολις, Naples, "New City"), Syracuse, Acragas, and Sybaris (Σύβαρις). In October 1922, Mussolini took advantage of a general strike to announce his demands to the Italian government to give the Fascist Party political power or face a coup. Odoacer's rule came to an end when the Ostrogoths, under the leadership of Theodoric, conquered Italy. Most of the workers on the agricultural lands were not peasants but short-term labourers who at best were employed for one year. The Roman Paenula. Others relocated to the northern industrial cities such as Genoa, Milan and Turin, and sent money home.[92]. Italy history Timeline Timeline Description: Italy is situated in the heart of Southern Europe and is recognizable by its famous boot shape protruding into the Mediterranean. The Concordat of 1929 made Catholicism the sole religion of the state (although other religions were tolerated), paid salaries to priests and bishops, recognized church marriages (previously couples had to have a civil ceremony), and brought religious instruction into the public schools. On 24 and 25 February 2013 a new election was held; the centre-left coalition of Pier Luigi Bersani, leader of the Democratic Party, win a majority in the Chamber of Deputies but not in the Senate. The Italian trade routes that covered the Mediterranean and beyond were major conduits of culture and knowledge. [145] Italian rates of growth were second only, but very close, to the German rates, in Europe, and among the OEEC countries only Japan had been doing better. The arrival of the first hominins was 850,000 years ago at Monte Poggiolo. By 1950, the economy had largely stabilized and started booming. 600 BC. Discontent was high in rural areas since so many men were taken for service, industrial jobs were unavailable, wages grew slowly and inflation was just as bad.[111]. [156] From March to May, Conte's government imposed a national quarantine as a measure to limit the spread of the pandemic. (Note: Napoleon III, as a young man, fought on the side of the 'Carbonari'.). The Roman legions, which had reached an unprecedented number (around 50) because of the civil wars, were reduced to 28. [73] In addition, Spain's involvement in the Thirty Years' War (1618–48), financed in part by taxes on its Italian possessions, heavily drained Italian commerce and agriculture; so, as Spain declined, it dragged its Italian domains down with it, spreading conflicts and revolts (such as the Neapolitan 1647 tax-related "Revolt of Masaniello"). We believe that traveling to lands, distant or otherwise, can only better a person, particularly when there is a level of immersion into the local people and their cultures, traditions, cuisine, history, and language. With his sole preeminence over Rome, Caesar gradually accumulated many offices, eventually being granted a dictatorship for perpetuity. During that time Rome grew to rule much of Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa. Donald Detwiler notes that "Italy's entrance into the war showed very early that her military strength was only a hollow shell. The Met’s Timeline of Art History pairs essays and works of art with chronologies and tells the story of art and global culture through the collection. [135] British historian John Bierman said that the Italian tank regiment "fought with great audacity, just as the Ariete artillery regiment did". Rural folk saw war is a disaster, like drought, famine or plague. The Roman Republic was formed out of the papal holdings while the pope himself was sent to France. Mark Antony's affair with Cleopatra was seen as an act of treason, since she was queen of a foreign power and Antony was adopting an extravagant and Hellenistic lifestyle that was considered inappropriate for a Roman statesman.[40]. [59][60], By the late Middle Ages, central and southern Italy, once the heartland of the Roman Empire and Magna Graecia respectively, was far poorer than the north. The site of Rome had a ford where the Tiber could be crossed. In 1806, he conquered the Kingdom of Naples and granted it to his brother and then (from 1808) to Joachim Murat, along with marrying his sisters Elisa and Paolina off to the princes of Massa-Carrara and Guastalla. The pope at the time, Pius IX, feared that giving up power in the region could mean the persecution of Italian Catholics.[88]. Depretis' goals included widening suffrage in 1882 and increasing the tax intake from Italians by expanding the minimum requirements of who could pay taxes and the creation of a new electoral system called which resulted in large numbers of inexperienced deputies in the Italian parliament. 1940 – Italian Start of WWII, Italy invades Greece from occupied Albania. The wool and silk industries of Lombardy collapsed when their looms were wrecked by invaders. The Neapolitan Republic was formed around Naples, but it lasted only five months before the enemy forces of the Coalition recaptured it. While helping Italy develop strategically, he continued trasformismo and was authoritarian, once suggesting the use of martial law to ban opposition parties. In the north, a Lombard League of communes launched a successful effort to win autonomy from the Holy Roman Empire, defeating Emperor Frederick Barbarossa at the Battle of Legnano in 1176. Further south, in Campania, a region where inhumation was the general practice, Proto-villanovan cremation burials have been identified at Capua, at the "princely tombs" of Pontecagnano near Salerno (finds conserved in the Museum of Agro Picentino) and at Sala Consilina. Chronological Tables. [65][66][67], In the early 16th century, Baldassare Castiglione with The Book of the Courtier laid out his vision of the ideal gentleman and lady, while Niccolò Machiavelli in The Prince, laid down the foundation of modern philosophy, especially modern political philosophy, in which the effective truth is taken to be more important than any abstract ideal. Originally arising from dynastic disputes over the Duchy of Milan and the Kingdom of Naples, the wars rapidly became a general struggle for power and territory among their various participants, marked with an increasing number of alliances, counter-alliances, and betrayals. After Germany annexed Czechoslovakia in March 1939, Mussolini decided to occupy Albania to avoid becoming second-rate member of the Axis. Frankish Merovingian costume history. Mussolini later supported German claims on Sudetenland, a province of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, at the Munich Conference. Famous artists such as Michelangelo, Raphael, Donatello and Leonardo Da Vinci lived during the Renaissance. [138] On a plaque dedicated to the Bersaglieri that fought at Mersa Matruh and Alamein, Rommel wrote: "The German soldier has impressed the world; the Italian Bersagliere has impressed the German soldier."[139]. Historian R.J.B. Most of the history of the ancient world has been collected by archaeologists, built, in part, by the use of fragmentary records, but also through myriad dating techniques. As the Allies advanced north, they encountered increasingly difficult terrain, as mountains offered excellent defensive position to Axis forces. In the south, the Normans occupied the Lombard and Byzantine possessions, ending the six century old presence of both powers in the peninsula.[53]. On 7 April 1939, Italy invaded Albania. The most popular sport in … The traditional account of Roman history, which has come down to us through Livy, Plutarch, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, and others, is that in Rome's first centuries it was ruled by a succession of seven kings. Ferdinand abolished the constitution and began systematically persecuting known revolutionaries. Italy participated in the war primarily to gain new territory in the North and the East; it blocked a major Austrian peace proposal in 1918. The reach of the British Empire and its navy spread cholera to Spain, Africa, Indonesia, China, Japan, Italy, Germany and America, where it killed 150,000 people. In the absence of any dating evidence, there is however no direct link between this genetic input and the Etruscans. Among these monarchs were the viceroy of Italy, Eugène de Beauharnais, who tried to get Austrian approval for his succession to the Kingdom of Italy, and Joachim Murat, who called for Italian patriots' help for the unification of Italy under his rule. This is a list of wars involving the Italian Republic since the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy on 17 March 1861, but does not include wars fought by the historic states of Italy.The result of these conflicts follows this legend: Italian victory Italian defeat Another result (e.g., a treaty or peace without a clear result, status quo ante bellum, result unknown or indecisive) Chronological Timeline On 25 July, Mussolini was ousted by the Great Council of Fascism and arrested by order of King Victor Emmanuel III, who appointed General Pietro Badoglio as new Prime Minister. Public appearances and propaganda constantly portrayed the closeness of Mussolini and Hitler and the similarities between Italian Fascism and German National Socialism. [13] The presence of the Homo neanderthalensis has been demonstrated in archaeological findings near Rome and Verona dating to c. 50,000 years ago (late Pleistocene). However, there exists no doubt that the political structure of the Etruscan culture was similar, albeit more aristocratic, to Magna Graecia in the south. He was popular amongst southern Italians. In 756 Frankish forces defeated the Lombards and gave the Papacy legal authority over much of central Italy, thus establishing the Papal States. Roberts, J.M. “During this period, Italy—and in the fifteenth century, Florence above all—is the seat of an artistic, humanistic, technological, and scientific flowering known as the Renaissance. [102], The First World War (1914–1918) was an unexpected development that forced the decision whether to honor the alliance with Germany and Austria. 509. The earthquake that rocked the city of Messina, Italy, in 1908 was the largest ever recorded in Europe, measuring more than 7 on the moment magnitude scale. [126] Mussolini was repulsed by the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact agreement where Germany and the Soviet Union agreed to partition the Second Polish Republic into German and Soviet zones for an impending invasion. 78, . 1867-1910. High Medieval Northern Italy was further divided by the long running battle for supremacy between the forces of the Papacy and of the Holy Roman Empire. They were Barlaam of Seminara and his disciple Leonzio Pilato of Seminara. In 1820, Spaniards successfully revolted over disputes about their Constitution, which influenced the development of a similar movement in Italy. History of England 43 BC to 440 AD. Pro-war supporters mobbed the streets with tens of thousands of shouting by nationalists, Futurists, anti-clericals, and angry young men. Soccer History Timeline Chronological Overview. Mussolini and Adolf Hitler first met in June 1934, as the issue of Austrian independence was in crisis. The same is true for architecture, as practiced by Brunelleschi, Leone Alberti, Andrea Palladio, and Bramante. The Renaissance was so called because it was a "rebirth" not only of economy and urbanization, but also of arts and science. Ancient Italy. Bosworth says of his foreign policy that Crispi: Crispi had been in the Depretis cabinet minister and was once a Garibaldi republican. The city-states of Italy expanded greatly during this period and grew in power to become de facto fully independent of the Holy Roman Empire.[61]. Days later on 2 May 1945, the German forces in Italy surrendered. During the same period, the Normans also ended Muslim rule in Sicily. [141] In 1957, Italy was a founding member of the European Economic Community, which later transformed into the European Union (EU). In 1923, Mussolini's coalition passed the electoral Acerbo Law, which assigned two thirds of the seats to the party that achieved at least 25% of the vote. Early History There is some evidence that points to outbreaks of cholera in the ancient world. In Italy, the Congress restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments, either directly ruled or strongly influenced by the prevailing European powers, particularly Austria. Italy had about 115,000 cases, and Spain had reported 110,000. Europe's worst earthquake, centered on the strait of Messina, kills up to 200,000 people in Sicily and southern Italy. When Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939 beginning World War II, Mussolini chose to stay non-belligerent, although he declared his support for Hitler. 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